Uses of radiation in radioactive dating

Nuclear half-lives range from tiny fractions of a second to many, many times the age of the universe.For more information on half-life and isotopes, please refer to the Isotopes Project at LBNL where you can also find the Table of Isotopes online.For complex nuclei there are many different possible ways in which the neutrons and protons can be arranged within the nucleus.

Among the elements are approximately 270 stable isotopes, and more than 2000 unstable isotopes.An atom consists of an extremely small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.Although typically the nucleus is less than one ten-thousandth the size of the atom, the nucleus contains more than 99.9% of the mass of the atom!Nuclei consist of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons held together by the so-called strong or nuclear force.This force is much stronger than the familiar electrostatic force that binds the electrons to the nucleus, but its range is limited to distances on the order of a few x10.

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This fogging suggested that some kind of ray had passed through the plate coverings.

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